Posted by: borobudurtrip | May 8, 2012

excotic borobudur temple

Borobudur Temple

Borobudur is the name of a Buddhist temple located in Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java. Location of the temple is approximately 100 miles southwest of Semarang and 40 km northwest of Yogyakarta. This temple was founded by the Mahayana Buddhists around the year 800 AD during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty
1. Name of Borobudur
Many theories that attempt to explain the name of this temple. One of them states that the name is probably derived from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means “mountain” (bhudara) where the slopes are located terraces. In addition there are some other folk etymology. Suppose that the word comes from the word Borobudur “the Buddha” is due to a shift in the sound of the Borobudur. Another explanation is that the name comes from two words “coal” and “beduhur”. The word bara said to have originated from the word monastery, while there is also another explanation where the coal comes from Sanskrit which means temple or monastery and beduhur meaning is “high”, or to remind the Balinese language means “above”. So the point is a monastery or a dormitory located on high ground.

Historian J.G. de Casparis in his dissertation to earn his doctorate in 1950 argued that Borobudur is a place of worship. Based on the inscriptions and Kahulunan Karangtengah, Casparis estimate the founder of the Borobudur is the king of Mataram dynasty Syailendra named Samaratungga, who did the construction of around 824 AD The giant new buildings can be completed at the time of her daughter, Queen Pramudawardhani. Borobudur estimated construction takes half a century. In Karangtengah inscription also mentioned about the bestowal of land sima (tax-free land) by Cri Kahulunan (Pramudawardhani) to maintain Kamulan called Bhūmisambhāra. [1] The term itself comes from the word Kamulan first which means places origin, a shrine to honor ancestors, probably the ancestor of the dynasty Sailendra. Casparis estimates that Bhumi Sambhāra Bhudhāra in Sanskrit which means “Mount of the set of ten levels boddhisattwa virtue”, was the original name of Borobudur.

2. The structure of Borobudur
Borobudur has a basic structure punden staircase, with a six-yard square, three circular courtyard and a main stupa as a peak. Also scattered in all pelatarannya several stupas.
Ten yard owned Borobudur clearly illustrates the Mahayana school of philosophy. Like a book, Borobudur describes ten levels of Bodhisattva who must pass to reach the perfection of the Buddha.
The foot of Borobudur represents Kamadhatu, the world is still dominated by kama, or “low desire”. This section is mostly covered by a pile of stone that allegedly made to strengthen the construction of the temple. At the closed part of this additional structure there are 120 panels Kammawibhangga story. A small part of an additional structure was set aside so people can still see the relief in this section.
Four floors with walls berelief on it by the experts called Rupadhatu. The floor is rectangular. Rupadhatu is a world that has been able to free himself from passion, but still bound by the appearance and shape. This level represents the nature of that is, between the bottom and the nature of nature. In part this Rupadhatu Buddha statues found in the recesses of the wall above ballustrade or breezeway.
Starting the fifth to the seventh floor walls are not berelief. This level is called Arupadhatu (which means no tangible form or not). Circular floor plan. This level represents the nature of, where people are free from all desires and bond forms and shapes, but have not reached nirvana. Buddha statues are placed in the stupa is covered with holes as in the cage. From outside the statues were still dim.
The highest level that describes the lack of being represented in the form of the largest and highest stupa. Stupa depicted plain without holes. In the largest stupa Buddha statue ever found an imperfect or unfinished also called Buddha, who disalahsangkakan as Adibuddha statue, but through further research there has never been a statue at the main stupa, which is not finished sculpture was a mistake pemahatnya in ancient times. according to the belief that the statue was wrong in the manufacturing process should not be tampered with. Archaeological excavations carried out in the courtyard of the temple was found a lot of statues like this.
In the past, several statues of Buddha along with 30 stones with reliefs, two statues of lions, some rocks shaped stage, stairs and gates are sent to the King of Thailand, Chulalongkorn, who visited the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) in 1896 as a gift from the Dutch Government as it.
Borobudur has no worship spaces like other temples. That there are long hallways which is a narrow road. The hallways surrounding the walled temple level by level. In the halls of the Buddhist is expected to perform the ceremony walk around the temple to the right. Shape of the building without room and terraced structure is thought to be an outgrowth of the form punden staircase, which is a form of architecture from prehistoric native Indonesia.
Borobudur structure when viewed from above form the structure of the Mandala.
Borobudur structure does not use cement at all, but the Interlock system is like Lego blocks that can be attached without glue.

3. Relief of Borobudur
At every level carved reliefs on temple walls. Reliefs are read according to the clockwise or called mapradaksina in Old Javanese language derived from Sanskrit meaning is daksina the east. These reliefs variety of story content, among other reliefs of Jataka stories.
Reading of the stories are always the starting relief, and ends on the east side of the gate at every level, starting on the left and right ends of the gate. So obviously that the east is the ladder up the real (main) and to the top of the temple, it means that the temple facing the east while the other sides of similar right.
The composition and distribution of relief stories on the walls and the balustrade of the temple are as follows.Relief ChartPosition Level / location Relief Story Number of FramesThe original temple leg – —– Karmawibhangga 160 framesLevel I – wall a. Lalitawistara 120 frames——- – —– B. Jataka / awadana 120 frames——- – Ledge a. Jataka / awadana 372 frames——- – —– B. Jataka / awadana 128 framesLevel II – 128 Gandawyuha wall frame——– – Ledge Jataka / awadana 100 framesLevel III – 88 Gandawyuha wall frame——– – 88 frames ledge GandawyuhaLevel IV – 84 Gandawyuha wall frame——– – 72 frames ledge Gandawyuha1460 ——– ——– Number of frames
In sequence, the story of the temple reliefs mean briefly as follows:
KarmawibhanggaOne of the temple wall carvings at Borobudur Karmawibhangga (southeast corner of the floor 0)
In accordance with the symbolic meaning of the foot of the temple, reliefs which adorn the walls of a hidden shelf that illustrate the law of karma. Rows of relief is not a story of the series (serial), but in every frame illustrates a story that has a causal correlation. Relief will not only give an idea of human moral turpitude accompanied by penalties that would obtain, but also human and reward good deeds. Overall, the portrayal of human life within the circle of birth – life – death (samsara) which is never ending, and by Buddhism chain is exactly what will be ended to to perfection.
History is a depiction of the Buddha in a row of reliefs (but not a complete history) that starts from the Buddha’s descent from heaven Tusita, and ends with the first sermon in the Deer Park near the city of Banaras. These reliefs lined the stairs on the south side, after a row exceeded the relief of 27 frames starting from the east side of the stairs. To-27 frames are busy describing, both in heaven and in the world, in preparation to welcome the presence of the last incarnation of the Bodhisattva as the Buddha. The reliefs depict the birth of the Buddha in this arcapada as Prince Siddhartha, son of the King and Queen Maya Suddhodana of Kapilavastu Affairs. Relief amounted to 120 frames, which ended with the first sermon, which is symbolically expressed as the Turning of the Wheel of Dharma, the Buddha’s teaching is called dharma also means “law”, while the dharma is represented as a wheel.
Jataka and Awadana
Jataka stories of Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha before. Protrusion of contents is the subject of good works, which distinguishes the Bodhisattvas of any other creature. Indeed, the collection service / good deed is a preparatory stage in the level of effort towards the Buddhahood.
While Awadana, basically almost the same as the Jataka but the culprit is not the Bodhisattvas, but other people and the stories collected in the book Diwyawadana which means noble godlike deeds, and the book Awadana Awadanasataka or a hundred stories. In the reliefs of Borobudur temple and awadana Jataka, treated equally, meaning that they occur in the same row without distinction. The set of the best known of the life of the Bodhisattva is Jatakamala or strands of Jataka stories, Aryasura and poet who lived in the 4th century AD.
Is a row of reliefs adorn the walls of the hall to-2, is the story of a wandering Sudhana tirelessly in his quest for knowledge about the Supreme Truth by Sudhana. Description of the frame 460 based on Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha, and for the lid on the story of another Bhadracari.[Edit] Buddha statueA statue of Buddha inside the stupa berterawang
Apart form of Buddhism in Buddhist cosmology is engraved on the walls, there are many statues at Borobudur Buddha sitting cross-legged in the lotus position and show mudras, or symbolic hand a certain attitude.
Buddha statue in the recesses at the level Rupadhatu, arranged by row on the outer side of the balustrade. Dwindling at the top. Balustrade of the first row consists of 104 niches, recesses 104 second row, third row recesses 88, fourth 72 recesses, and the fifth line 64 niches. Total there are 432 statues of Buddha at the level Rupadhatu. [3] At the Arupadhatu (three circular courtyard), statues of Buddha placed in stupas berterawang (perforated). At first there is a circular platform 32 stupas, the second court of the 24 stupas, and the third courtyard there are 16 stupas, all of them a total of 72 stupas. [3] Of the original number as many as 504 statues of Buddha, more than 300 have been damaged (mostly headless) and 43 missing ( since the discovery of this monument, head of the buddha is often stolen as collector’s item, mostly by foreign museums). [4]
On the face of all this buddha statues look similar, but there are subtle differences between, namely the attitude of mudras or hand positions. There are five categories mudra: North, East, South, West, and Central, all based on five main direction of the compass according to the teachings of Mahayana. Fourth balustrade has four mudras: North, East, South, and West, where each buddha statues facing the direction of a typical display mudra. Buddha statues on the balustrade of the fifth and the buddha statues inside the 72 stupas in the court on showing berterawang mudra: Middle or Center. Each mudra symbolize the five Dhyani Buddhas, each with its own symbolic meaning. [5]

4. Highlights of the Borobudur restoration process
I 1814 – Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom in Java, heard of the discovery of archaeological objects in the village of Borobudur. Raffles ordered H.C. Cornelius to investigate the discovery site, a hill covered with shrubs.

1873 – The first monograph published about the temple.

1900 – Dutch East Indies government established a committee of restoration and maintenance of the temple of Borobudur.

1907 – Theodoor van Erp led the restoration until 1911.

1926 – Borobudur restored, but stalled in 1940 due to malaise and the crisis of World War II.

1956 – Government of Indonesia requested assistance of UNESCO. Prof. Dr. C. Coremans came to Indonesia from Belgium to investigate the causes of damage to Borobudur.

1963 – The Indonesian government issued a decree to restore Borobudur, but the mess after the events of the G-30-S.

1968 – At a conference-15 in France, UNESCO agreed to provide assistance to rescue Borobudur.

1971 – Government of Indonesia established a body chaired Prof.Ir.Roosseno restoration of Borobudur.

Restoration of the memorial stone with the help of UNESCO’s Borobudur temple

1972 – International Consultative Committee was formed with the involvement of various countries and Roosseno as its chairman. UNESCO-sponsored committee to provide 5 million U.S. dollars from the cost of 7750 million dollar restoration of the United States. The rest covered Indonesia.

August 10, 1973 – President Soeharto inaugurated the commencement of the restoration of Borobudur; restoration was completed in 1984

January 21, 1985 – bomb attack which damaged some of the stupa at Borobudur Temple which was soon repaired. Attacks carried out by extremist Islamic group led by Hussein Ali Al Ethiopia.